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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 45-49

Middle meningeal artery embolization in the management of chronic subdural haematoma: A case report and review of literature


Department of Neurosurgery, Apollo Hospitals, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Srinivasan Paramasivam
Department of Neurosurgery, Apollo Hospitals, Chennai, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jcvs.jcvs_7_20

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Chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH) is a common cranial neurosurgical condition with morbidity and mortality ranging from 2% to 5%. Conventional treatment includes conservative and surgical evacuation. Minimally invasive middle meningeal artery (MMA) embolisation is emerging as a potential treatment option. We report our case successfully managed by MMA embolization and review the literature. cSDH development and progression is related to the cycle of chronic inflammation and angiogenesis following the original hemorrhage due to trivial trauma. Due to growth factor, stimulation-initiating angiogenesis leading to growth of leaky blood vessels causing microhaemorrhages resulting in the progressive enlargement of subdural collection as the physiologic absorption capability is outpaced by the rate of collection. Strategies for the management of cSDH are aimed at interrupting the vicious cycle of its development and tilting the balance toward reabsorption of haemorrhage. Conservative management, medical treatment and surgical treatments are conventional treatment options with surgical evacuation considered as the gold standard option. However, challenges include recurrence and reversal of anti-platelets and anti-coagulants and its associated risk of ischaemic complications. cSDH being a pathology of meninges deriving blood the dura causing microhaemorrhages, it is prudent to seal off the vessels to tilt the balance towards resorption. MMA embolisation as a treatment option has been used with significant published data. It may be used as a stand-alone therapy in minimally symptomatic patients. Technical success rate is high both with polyviny alcohol and liquid embolic agents. Recurrence rate is consistently low in spite of significant patients having antiplatelets and anti-coagulants on board. It eliminates the ischemic complication due to stoppage of antiplatelets and anticoagulants. MMA embolization is also emerging as an adjunct to surgically evacuated cSDH that is considered high risk for recurrence.


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